Content Page of Sanctions 2021



Chapters                                                                                                                                                                                        Pages


1. Introduction   1

1.1. Overview of the AALCO’s Work on the Extraterritorial Application of National Legislation: Sanctions imposed against Third Parties’ 1

1.1.1. AALCO’s Preliminary Study on Extraterritorial Application of National Legislation   1

1.1.2. Consideration of the topic before the AALCO’s  Special Study in 2014  5

1.1.3. AALCO’s Special Study on ‘Unilateral and Secondary Sanctions: An International Law Perspective’ of 2014  6

1.1.4. Extraterritorial Application of National Legislation: Sanctions imposed against Third Parties’ at the Fifty-Eighth Annual Session in 2019  7

1.1.5. The Need for a New Special Study on ‘Extraterritorial Application of National Legislation’ 11

1.2. Scope of the Study 2

1.3. Outline of the Study 14

2. Extraterritorial Application of National Legislation vis-à-vis Norms and Principles of International Law                                                                                   21

2.1. Introduction                                                                                            21

2.2.Principles of International Law undermined by   EANL    24

2.2.1. Violations  of  the Principles  of  the United Nations Charter  25 Principles of Sovereign Equality and Territorial Integrity  25 Principle of non-intervention   32 Duty to Cooperate  35

2.2.2. Countermeasures and Dispute Settlement 38

2.3. Relevance of ICJ jurisprudence in ‘Extraterritorial Application of National Legislation’ 44

2.4. The Law of State Responsibility and the Limits of Extraterritorial Application of National Legislation a            51

2.5. Some recent developments in State practice with respect to EANL   57

2.6. Concluding Remarks  60

3.Extraterritorial Application of National Legislation and its impact on Human Rights  63

3.1.Introduction   63

3.2.International  Human  Rights Law: The Juridical   Framework for a Just World Order  63

3.3.International  Law  and  Limits  of  Extraterritorial  Application  of  National  Legislation: An International  Human  Rights Perspective  66

3.3.1. The Law of Countermeasures in State Responsibility subject to International Human Rights Law   66

3.3.2.Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations and Unilateral Economic Sanctions  68

3.3.3.The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action, 1993  72

3.3.4. The UN Charter and Human Rights  72

3.4. Extraterritorial Application of National Legislation and its impact on specific Human Rights  74

3.4.1.Extraterritorial Application of National Legislation and the Right to Life  74 General Comment No. 36 on Article 6 of the ICCPR: The Cornerstone of the Right to Life  78 Right to Life, Environmental Sustainability and Extraterritorial Application of  National Legislation   80

3.4.2.Extraterritorial Application of National Legislation and the Right to Development  81

3.4.3.Extraterritorial Application of National Legislation and the Right to Food   90 to Food Violations in Syria and Iran in the context of Unilateral Restrictive Measures  94 Covid-19 and the Right to Food in the context of unilateral economic sanctions  95

3.4.4.Extraterritorial Application of National Legislation and the Right to Health and Medicine  97 Unilateral Sanctions and the Right to Health in Pre-Covid-19 Iran and Syria  98 Covid-19 and the Right to Health in the context of Unilateral Sanctions  100 US withdrawal from the JCPOA and its impact on the Right to Health   103

3.4.5. Extraterritorial Application of National Legislation and the Right to Self-Determination   104

3.5. Special  Rapporteurs  on  the  Negative  Impact of   Unilateral Coercive  Measures  on  the Enjoyment  of  Human  Rights:  The Human Rights Council shows the way  107

3.6. Concluding Remarks  113

4.Extraterritorial  Application  of  National Legislation and the COVID-19 Pandemic:  Role  of the WHO    115

4.1. Introduction   115

4.2. The Evolution of the Concept of the Right to Health   119

4.3. Globalization of the Concept of Health   126

4.4. Effect   of   EANL   on   the   Right   to   Health amid the COVID-19 Crises  129

4.5. Role of the WHO   139

4.6. Assessing EANL from a Humanitarian  Perspective:  Looking for Remedies  148

4.7. Concluding Remarks  152

5.Extraterritorial  Application  of  National Legislation  and International Trade Law: Economic Sanctions  155

5.1. Introduction   155

5.2. Economic Sanctions: Nature, Purpose and Objectives  159

5.3. Secondary Sanctions and Bilateral Trade Relations  163

5.3.1. FCN Treaties  164

5.3.2. BITs  166

5.4. Secondary Sanctions and the International Monetary Fund   169

5.4.1. Article VIII (2) on restrictions on the making of payments and transfers for current international transactions  169

5.4.2. Articles VII and XIV and Unilateral Measures  171

5.4.3. The Spill-over effect of the 1952 decision of the IMG Executive Board on financial sanctions and GATS  173

5.5. Unilateral Sanctions and the Multilateral Trading Regime  177

5.5.1. Assessing the WTO consistency  177

5.5.2. General Exceptions under the WTO and trade restrictive measures  182

5.5.3. Economic Sanctions to Safeguard National Security  185

5.5.4. The   Covid-19  Pandemic  and  Trade Restrictive Measures  191

5.5.5. The Interpretation of General Exceptions in International Investment Agreements  193

5.6. Impact of Secondary Sanctions on Third Parties  196

5.7. Concluding Remarks  197

6. Challenging  Extraterritorial  Application  of National Legislation:  Legal  Warfare  against  Unilateral  and Secondary Sanctions  201

6.1. Introduction   201

6.2. From  joining the  JCPOA to resort to  ICJ by  the Islamic  Republic of Iran   202

6.3. Rules on Counteracting Unjustified Extraterritorial Application of Foreign Legislation & Other Measures  205

6.3.1. The Necessity of national Blocking Rules  206

6.3.2. Background  to  the  Promulgation  o f  the Chinese Blocking Rules  207

6.3.3. An Appraisal of the Semantics of the Blocking Rules Statutory Purpose and Scope of Application   210 Competent Authority and Method of Operation   211 Reporting Obligations, Compliance Obligations and Punishment  212 Exemptions to Prohibition Orders  213 Judicial Remedies and Government Support  213

6.3.4. Projected Impact  214

6.3.5. The Aftermath   217

6.4. The EU Blocking Statute  221

6.4.1. The Content of the EU Blocking Statute  222 Scope of Application of the EU Blocking Statute  222 Obligations of EU Natural and Legal Persons  223

  1. Obligation of non-recognition of judgments and decisions  224

b. Recovery of Damages  225

c. Guarantee of implementation of the Blocking Statute  230

d. Authorization to comply with secondary sanctions  231

6.4.2. Remedies available to Iranian Commercial Entities under the EU Blocking Statute  234

6.4.3.  EU  Foreign Policy and Extraterritorial Sanctions: INSTEX and Blocking Statute  236

6.4.4. Efficiency of the EU Blocking Statute  238

6.5. Concluding Remarks  239

7. Conclusion: The Way Forward   243

Appendix 1  251

Appendix 2   257

Appendix 3   265

Bibliography  275

Index   295


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